How Alkaline Batteries Are Made

Alkaline batteries are a dependable energy source and can last several years. They use a positive electrode based on manganese (IV)oxide and a negative electrode made of zinc. It has an electrolyte from a concentrated alkaline solution. At the positive electrode, the manganese (IV) oxide converts into manganese (III) oxide and hydroxyl ions. The zinc reacts with the hydroxyl ions at the negative electrode, releasing the electrons that power the circuit. With this, how alkaline batteries are made is essential to understanding why they’re useful today. All the mechanisms that go into battery production are monitored by industrial web guiding systems, and battery manufacturing companies can purchase these components to ensure maximum proficiency.


  1. The cathode acts as part of the battery’s container. The manganese dioxide, carbon black (graphite), and electrolyte (potassium hydroxide mixed in a solution) mix in large batches. This mixture is then granulated and pressed into hollow cylinders (preforms). Several of these cylinders may be stacked on each other, or an extruded ring of the same material replaces them.
  2. The cylinders are inserted into a nickel-plated steel can. The steel can and cylinder make up the battery’s entire cathode. An indentation is made near the top of the can, and a sealant is placed to protect against leakage.


A paper separator soaked in the electrolyte solution is inserted against the preforms. This separator keeps the cathode material from contacting the anode material. It is made from either several pieces of paper or a porous synthetic fiber.


A gel made from zinc powder, potassium hydroxide electrolyte, and other materials is placed next. It is not filled to the top, to allow for chemical reactions to occur.


  1. At this point, the battery is an open-cell. Although it could produce electricity, it would not last long. To ensure its long-lasting potential, it needs a brass nail or spike inserted in the middle of the can. It also needs a plastic seal and a metal end cap. The nail is welded to the metal end cap and passes through the plastic seal.
  2. The seal meets the indentation at the top of the can and is crimped in place.
  3. A steel plate closes the positive end of the battery after being welded in place or glued with an epoxy cement.


A label is glued on to show the size, type, and other information.

Quality Control

All batteries are checked for optimal quality control. Manufactures check various conditions to ensure a stable shelf life and to protect against corrosion. All steps in the manufacturing process and post-production are checked for error.